Return to Sea: Seabirds, Seamounts, and Science

By Jessie Bolin (2019 student alumni)

I’m Jessie, a first year PhD student at USC, and I was lucky enough to be a student participant on this year’s CAPSTAN voyage aboard RV Investigator from Hobart to Fremantle. The focus of the program was to train Australia’s next generation of interdisciplinary marine scientists, and we were exposed to field and lab techniques in sedimentology, geophysics, plankton, hydrochemistry, physical oceanography, and fauna identification. This was my first introduction to life at sea aboard a scientific research vessel, and I was hooked.   

Me on the fifth deck of RV Investigator (Photo Credit: Chantelle Ridley)

I have just returned from my second voyage on RV Investigator, where we spent 28 days cruising around the Coral Sea. The primary voyage goal, led by Chief Scientist Associate Professor Jo Whittaker, was to further understand the spatiotemporal extent of mantle plume activity in the Coral Sea, and to investigate how features in the region formed, like the Tasmantid and Lorde Howe seamount chains, and the Louisiade Plateau. This was done by using dredges (think of a massive net with teeth) to gather rock samples from seamounts and ridges, and using the multibeam echosounders to map the seafloor.

The rock dredge, affectionately named ‘Schnappi,’ with a nice haul (Photo Credit Amelia Smethurst).

In addition to the primary project, the voyage had other supplementary projects:

  • Understanding spatial links between geomorphology and biodiversity in the Coral Sea Australian Marine Park
  • Spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and abundance of seabirds
  • Collection of dead invertebrates dredged with geological samples
  • Transit over the likely wreck sites of the USS Lexington and USS Neosho
  • Educator on Board program
3D visualisation of Lexington Seamount (Photo Credit: Jessie Bolin).

I was involved with the “Seabirds at Sea” project, and my role was a seabird and marine mammal observer for Birdlife Australia. A typical day for our team would involve starting observations at Monkey Island (the top level of the ship) just before sunrise, and recording the number, species, and behaviour of any observed seabirds and marine mammals through to sunset, using a standard survey protocol used since the 1980s. At the end of our journey through the Australian, Papuan, Solomon and New Caledonian EEZ’s, we recorded over 14,000 seabirds and 27 species.

(Left) Another day at the office. (Right) An epic sunset. (Photo Credit: Jessie Bolin)

Out of the 27 species, my favourite was the red-footed booby. They’re quite the comical bird, and at one point, we had over 50 red-footed boobies perched on the mast (…and scientific equipment), which broke a record for RV Investigator. Boobies feast on flying fish, and it was beyond exciting watching the boobies chase and catch flying fish that were disturbed by the ship. Flying fish can glide up to 70 km/hr to escape predators, which makes the boobies even more remarkable! Also, I witnessed my first instance of kleptoparasitism by a frigatebird. Instead of catching their own food, frigatebirds incessantly harass other birds – usually boobies – causing the victim to regurgitate their own food, which the frigatebird then steals in mid-air.

(Left) Red-footed Boobies in pursuit of a flying fish. (Right) A Lesser Frigatebird. (Photo Credit: Eric Woehler)

The Investigator is a ship for all scientists, which meant I was exposed to a diversity of perspectives and scientific research from completely different research areas to my own. Each day we’d have a ‘science talk’, where someone volunteered to give a talk about something they’re working on. Talks were diverse, and ranged from intraplate volcanism in Eastern Australia (Ben Mather, USyd), to using AUVs and ROVs to measure the spatial variability of algae under Antarctic sea ice (Vanessa Lucieer, UTAS), to methods of Ancient Egyptian mummy preservation (Quinn Anderson, USyd). Never in my life would I have thought I’d get to learn about Ancient Egyptian mythology on a research ship in the middle of the Coral Sea, yet there I was. We also celebrated international pet rock day, which was a real hit – particularly for the geology team!

(Left) Entrants for International Pet Rock Day competition. (Right) Jamie Menzies, one of the Educators on Board, giving a talk on embodied learning for young scientists. (Photo Credit: Jessie Bolin)

A special moment for me (and many of the other scientists) was our final evening on the ship. The sun was setting, and we had just crossed into the East Australian Current on our way home to Brisbane. Seemingly out of nowhere, multiple pods of 50+ pilot whales and common dolphins appeared, and some of the dolphins started riding the bow waves! I’ll never forget the screams of excitement and complete joy that the marine mammals’ presence brought to the scientists and crew. They stayed with the ship for what felt like ages – it was a perfect end to a truly wonderful voyage.

Waiting for the final rock dredge in the sheltered science area (Photo Credit Jamie Menzies).

For any budding marine scientist, I’d highly recommend going on RV Investigator. My background is in marine ecology and data science, yet going on this voyage meant I got to learn about marine geology and geophysics, and I even discovered a newfound interest for all things basalt and deep-sea volcanism. Being at sea for a month has taught me loads about the value of interdisciplinary marine science and working in a small, tight-knit community, and the experience has forged friendships for life. Thank you to the CSIRO Marine National Facility for a generous grant of sea time that made this voyage possible – I can’t wait to go back!

The science team, support staff, and some of the ship’s crew (Photo Credit Huw Morgan).

A day in the life of a sedimentologist

By Jin-Sol Lee, University of Melbourne

Although it would be hard to imagine, you couldn’t have seen a more excited group of adults than when a three-metre rectangular block of muddy sediment was pulled onto the ship. This surreal moment is when you realise you’ve fallen into the rabbit hole and entered a whole new world; the world of a sedimentologist.

This image of the stern (back) deck of RV Investigator shows the A-frame almost at its uppermost position as the 4 members of the crew and support staff work to deploy the kasten core off its track from the back of RV Investigator in a submarine canyon off Portland Victoria as part of hands-on marine science training for students on CAPSTAN's 2019 voyage.
Kasten core being pulled up from the depths of the Southern Ocean

This block of muddy sediment is a sediment core taken from the bottom of the ocean and reveals a whole plethora of wonderful and strange stories from Earth’s history. These stories relate to how our planet’s environment, climate, and ocean currents have changed over time. What is truly amazing is that we know so much about the long and dramatic history of our planet despite the fact that we have not been part of that history for very long. This amazement is humbling and is a reminder of the capabilities of the human race, and the responsibilities we have as stewards of the planet.

Once the core is brought into the lab there is a flurry of activity to open the metal casing, which holds the sediment core, and to see what strange and mysterious tales from the ocean depths have been brought to the surface. With the casing removed heads are bent over to observe the colour, structure and composition of the sediments. Quick, sharp remarks are exchanged between the various parties involved before the processing of the core is started without delay. First, the core is logged which involves documenting the major characteristics of the core. This is important because these observations will underpin the majority of the interpretations which brings the whole story together. From here smear slides and small sediment samples are taken along the core to examine the changes which occur from top to bottom.

The sediment lab is full of students and trainers as the kasten core (3 m long steel pipe) is opened on one side and imaged using a DSLR camera.  Students and trainers described the sediments, sampled plankton, and measured seawater properties as part of hands-on marine science training during CAPSTAN's 2019 voyage on RV Investigator.
The big reveal! A hub of activity as the core is brought into the lab and the task of processing and sampling the sediments begins!

Hours will be spent analysing these slides and samples, with more sampling done along areas of interest until the sediment core looks less than pristine. Not to worry however since before the sediment core was scooped, poked and prodded an archive core was taken and stored in the fridge. This archive core is kept with all its structures and features intact as an original record for safekeeping.

Two students and a trainer stand around the lab bench in the sediment lab working to describe the sediments using a Munsell color chart and several microscopes securely fastened to the counter as part of hands-on marine science training during the 2019 CAPSTAN voyage.
Hard at work! Sediment core being logged to describe the major characteristics and sediments being analysed under the microscope.

There is a certain amount of chaos and untidiness in the lab which may be disconcerting to the casual viewer, but there is a method to the madness with great care being taken to systematically record and sample the sediment core. Furthermore, there are efforts to limit contamination across the core (i.e. avoid mixing sediment from one area of the core to another). In fact, it is quite liberating to be able to conduct science in a lab where things are more practical, and improvisation is encouraged. A day in a life of a sedimentologist will surely shake up the perception of the typical scientist in a lab coat conducting experiments in a clean and well organised laboratory.

An unprecedented life experience in the middle of the ocean

By Umair Mumtaz, University of Western Australia

Today is the last day of the CAPSTAN research voyage IN2019_T01. My excitement is palpable as CAPSTAN has surpassed my expectations. The training provided in multidisciplines ranging from geology, geophysics, oceanography and microbiology will definitely act as a milestone for stepping into a future marine scientist. Time passes so quickly, I spent almost 12 days in the ocean and during these days I observed nature very closely, clear water, blue sky, sea birds and micro organisms with in the ocean.

CAPSTAN students Angela (left) and Umair (right) work together to take discrete sediment samples from the kasten core and place them in a small plastic sample bag as part of the hands on marine science training on RV Investigator during the 2019 voyage
Here, we take discrete samples from the kasten core in the sediment lab (Photo Credit: April Abbott)

This year’s training cruise was targeted on the canyon system on the eastern edge of the Bight Basin, near the outer continental shelf just southeast of Portland, Victoria. This region is unique due to the presence of cool water carbonate turbidite deposits. Such carbonate systems can only be formed with minimal terrestrial input. I was enthusiastic to see these carbonate systems as my masters research project is also related to the carbonates but they are formed in warm and temperate environment.

A bathymetric map of the canyon off Portland Victoria studied as part of hands-on marine science training on RV Investigator during CAPSTAN 2019.  Overlaid on the bathymetric map is color depicting the steepness of the slope with warm colors showing the steepest regions and cool colors showing the less steep regions.
Map of the canyon near Portland showing slope steepness (red is steepest)

Carbonate involves limestone and dolomite (rocks) that consists of mineral calcium carbonate (CaCo3) and dolomite CaMg(Co3)2 respectively. The organisms that live with in the water are zooplanktons (animals) and phytoplanktons (plants). They are made up of calcium carbonate and after their death they accumulated with in the water and after cementation and compaction, limestone is formed. It is important to understand carbonates because they can tell us about sea level changes, paleoceanography, paleoclimates, and marine ecosystems. They also holds around 50% of the oil and gas reserves.

View down the microscope of foraminifera, a sponge spicule, and other coarse grain material from a sieved sediment sample students collected from a kasten core as part of hands-on marine science training on RV Investigator during CAPSTAN 2019
A close up of some of the carbonate sediments we collected. In this view down the microscope, several foraminifera (phytoplankton) are visible. (Photo Credit: April Abbott)

A submarine canyon is a steep sided valley that extends from continental shelf to the sea bed. The turbidity currents carry material from the continental shelf passes through the canyon with an immense speed and may deposited with in the canyon and deep ocean floor. There can be many driving forces behind these turbidity deposits. These can be triggered by earthquake, gravity flows and tectonic forces. Due to density contrast between the sediments, the coarser ones will deposit first and finer will remain in suspension and deposited at the end.  

CAPSTAN 2019 Chief Scientist Leah Moore motions with her hands to illustrate how a rock dredge collects samples during a gear tour on board RV Investigator for students participating in the at-sea hands on marine science training program
Chief Scientist Leah Moore explains the rock dredge during a gear tour (Photo Credit April Abbott)

Our chief scientist, Dr. Leah Moore selected specific depths for coring after looking at the bathymetry (geophysical) data. The bathymetry data uses acoustic (sound) waves to determine the geomorphological features of the ocean floor. The RV Investigator is equipped with the Kongsberg EM122 multibeam echosounders to retrieve high quality bathymetry maps. The cores were retrieved at 1700m, 2200m, 3700m and 4700m depths. I was working in the sedimentology lab to find out the variations in percentage of the fossils present in the top and bottom of each core. I was exposed to using the microscope to identify different foraminifera.

CAPSTAN students collect water from the niskin bottles surrounding the CTD rosette as part of hands-on marine science training on board RV Investigator.
Taking water samples from the niskin bottles attached to the CTD rosette (Photo Credit: April Abbott)

Another exciting thing was CTD as it was new for me. CTD stands for conductivity, temperature and depth. It consists of a carousel that has 36 niskin bottles with sensors at the bottom. In the operations room, a fluorescence curve that shows the chlorophyll activity with in the ocean and helps to decide the locations for samples. These bottles were closed at designated depths while coming back to surface. The polystyrene cups that were decorated by the students were sent down with the CTD to demonstrate the pressure affect. These polystyrene cups became very small in size after coming back from the ocean. Due to this small experiment, it is very easy to understand that pressure increases with depth.

Styrafoam cups shrunken to about the size of a shot glass can be seen in a pile in an onion bag.  These cups were sent kilometers below ocean and the pressure shrunk them from their original size.
Polystyrene cups after being sent down with the CTD are seen here in an onion bag (Photo Credit April Abbott)

On the very last day, we had a lot of fun. Our CAPSTAN director, Dr. April Abbott arranged a quiz to entertain all the participants and crew members. Everyone was in a different costume except me to relish those last moments. Our trainer, Stephen is a great geologist but his sense of humour was also amazing. I am obliged to be a part of this exciting opportunity as it not only increased my knowledge related to marine science but also helped me to thick critically, improved my confidence and science communication skills.

CAPSTAN trainers sit in the RV Investigator's mess looking at a laptop while discussing data students collected as part of the hands on marine science training voyage.
CAPSTAN co-chief scientist Matt (left) and trainer Stephen (right) discuss the results from the sedimentology lab in the mess

Sampling Seawater 101

By Jessica Bolin, University of the Sunshine Coast

Time is flying by – it’s day six of CAPSTAN Voyage #2, and we’ve now had the chance to explore different fields of oceanographic research during our group rotations: hydrochemistry, birds and mammals, plankton, geophysics, and sedimentology. Because we all have diverse backgrounds and areas of research, we’ve started to decide what our favourite stations are. My favourite, so far, is hydrochemistry, because we get to work with the CTD!

The CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth) rosette containing the CTD sensors and surrounded by 36 niskin bottles for discrete water sampling is deployed over the side of RV Investigator as part of the hands-on marine science training on RV Investigator through the CAPSTAN program
The CTD being lowered over the side

CTD stands for conductivity, temperature, and depth, and is one of the main pieces of scientific equipment that oceanographers use, because it measures changes in water properties throughout the water column. The CTD we’re using on board the RV Investigator holds 36 ‘Niskin’ bottles in a circular rosette frame, which is lowered from a huge boom on the starboard side of the ship, into the depths below. Upon deployment, each bottle’s plug is held open under tension by a spring-loaded metal hook. It’s an impressive piece of gear – the frame is taller than me (1.8 m), and each bottle can hold up to 12 L of seawater.

Bathymetric map showing the submarine shelf break canyons near Portland, Victoria in the Great Australian Bight.  Four major canyons are visible, one shaped like a Y is the main focus of our study.  The image shows shallower depths in red and greater depths in blue.  Bathymetric data was collected along with sediment and water sampling as part of the hands-on marine science training on RV Investigator through the CAPSTAN program.
Bathymetric map of our study area. Our site is the Y shaped canyon (third from the left). We’ve deployed the CTD at various depths along the canyon.

Our target site is a submarine canyon near Portland, Victoria, and we’re dropping the CTD at various sections along the canyon to further understand the circulation and other physical processes occurring within. As the CTD descends through the water column, sensors attached to the bottom of the frame sample the water’s properties, including temperature, oxygen, and conductivity; the latter which is used to calculate salinity. The data are pinged back to the ship’s operations room, where we all watch the vertical profiles of these parameters developing in real-time.

Fellow CAPSTAN student Sian sites in the operations room on board RV Investigator in front of several computer monitors to operate the CTD deployment.  She is watching the CTD parameters (temperature, depth, conductivity, oxygen, and chlorophyll) read out in real time to determine the depths at which to fire the niskin bottles and communicating with the winch operators as part of hands-on marine science training through the CAPSTAN program.
Sian sits in the operation room viewing the different CTD parameters in real time, and getting ready to fire the niskin bottles as the CTD ascends through the water column.

Once the CTD has nearly reached the bottom and starts ascending to the surface, each bottle is remotely ‘fired’ by an observer in the operations room at regular depth intervals. ‘Firing’ a bottle relays a signal to the CTD to release the hook on the target bottle’s plug, closing the bottle and trapping the water at that depth inside. After we have fired every bottle, the CTD is carefully retrieved by the crew and prepped for subsampling on deck… and the real fun begins!

CAPSTAN trainer Veronica Tamsitt samples a niskin bottle on the CTD rosette on board RV Investigator as part of the 2019 CAPSTAN voyage
Veronica sampling (very cold) seawater from a Niskin bottle

From each bottle, we’ll take three subsamples of water for further testing: one to test for nutrients, one for salinity, and one for dissolved oxygen, whilst also recording water temperature. From these subsamples, we can calculate the density of the seawater, which is a primary driving force for major ocean currents. It blows my mind to think that the water we’re working with has come from up to 2200 m within a submarine canyon, which in turn, has travelled along ocean currents all over the world!

CAPSTAN students Jessie, Imbi, and Jin Sol stop between sampling the niskin bottles on the CTD rosette for a selfie in front of the CTD on board RV Investigator with CAPSTAN trainer Veronica as part of hands-on marine science training
CTD selfie! The green team (Jessie, Imbi, and Jin-Sol) with trainer Veronica (far left)

It is safe to say that I’ve developed a new-found love for physical oceanography and all things ocean currents. The ocean is inherently dynamic, and constantly changes in real-time. Teasing apart the mechanisms underpinning the circulation within our site is both challenging and fascinating. Once we start processing and analysing our data, we’ll hopefully be able to pick up the signature of the Flinders Current that flows west along the Great Australian Bight, and perhaps internal waves from within the canyon. Also, with a bit of luck, *fingers crossed* we can pick up the signature of a deep-water ocean current, that Veronica Tamsitt – our token physical oceanographer on board – recently discovered in the Bight, and collect some much needed data to ground-truth the current’s existence. In short, we are discovering SUPER exciting stuff this voyage, so stay tuned!

Check out my group’s blog on The Field!

Jessica is a PhD student at the University of the Sunshine Coast. Follow her on Twitter @JessieABolin

Welcome to CAPSTAN voyage 2

By Maddie Brown, University of Melbourne

How many scientists does it take to play a board game? Enough to break the ice.

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Welcome to CAPSTAN Voyage 2, a collaborative program to give young scientists an opportunity to experience marine research and life at sea. Step one of our journey required an introduction to each other and to the various disciplines that fit under the marine research umbrella. Geology, Chemistry, Biology, Oceanography and Geophysics just to name a few. One of the best ways we found to get to know each other was by playing board games at our accommodation in Hobart prior to boarding the RV Investigator. Teams were created and friendships born through rummy-cube, Monopoly and Settlers of Catan. It’s amazing how easily the group connected with their common logical minds and strategic thinking, qualities that are often associated with great scientists.

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The CTD rosette goes into the water.

Our target stations are located just off Portland, so we spent a few days adjusting to shift work and familiarising ourselves with the ship. Geophysical data was collected continuously throughout our journey to help understand the bathymetry around Tasmania and Victoria, this will be continued right through to Fremantle. Day one at our first station and it was all systems go, the CTD rosette was loaded and ready to be winched off the ship to collect hydrochemistry data through the water column down to 1700 metres. The CTD collects samples at intervals through the column, directed by the Operations Room which we had the privilege of viewing and assisting the direction.

In addition to the CTD, coloured polystyrene cups were placed in an onion bag and sent with it, to showcase the increase of pressure with depth. After the CTD returned to the ship, the bongo net was put over the edge to collect plankton samples in shallow water depths (40 metres and 100 metres).

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Normal off-the-shelf (‘before’) polystyrene cup and one after being decorated and submerged to 1800 meters. Photo Credit: Sophie Dolling

The last collection at this station was a Kasten Core, which is used to collect 3 metres of sediment below the sea floor. On top of all of this, bird and marine mammal counts were being conducted from the viewing point on the ship. We have been lucky enough to see several species of albatross, petrels, shearwaters and prions. We even saw six seals having the time of their lives hanging around the ship. Speaking of wildlife, the team of young scientists had some spare time at night to wind down. Naturally, we bonded over watching appropriate films, such as Finding Dory.

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Voyage participants gather in the lounge on RV Investigator to watch Finding Dory and play games

We are only at the beginning of our journey through to Fremantle and I know there is so much more to learn. I’m already so grateful for what I have experienced and I can’t wait to wake up tomorrow to see what new knowledge lies ahead.

What a trip!

April Abbott, Macquarie University, Director of CAPSTAN
04b CAPSTAN students and trainers represent 12 universities_Image Marine National FacilityLast day group photo on the bow. Photo Credit: Marine National Facility/CSIRO

With an incredible crew, wonderful trainers, enthusiastic students, and favourable seas we couldn’t have asked for a more successful CAPSTAN pilot voyage!

JK2Drone in flight at sea. Photo Credit: J Kaempf

The last full day at sea was an appropriate end to an epic 13 days crossing the Great Australian Bight. Students recapped the research results, our sea bird counts soared (# of total individuals increased 4x over the last day), we had regular marine mammals checking us out, and flat seas allowed the drone back into the air! The day was split between observations, presentations, writing, cleaning, and some celebrating!

DSC_0775A seal was snoozing peacefully until we came along!

The morning was busy as students finalised their presentations, trainers cleaned the laboratories, and everyone took some time to enjoy our surroundings! Student groups presented their findings to the science team after lunch- each team a demonstration of the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration! The research completed in a short 4 days on station is incredible, especially considering over-the-side deployments ceased at night.

08 CAPSTAN students examine rock dredge sample_Image Marine National FacilityStudents sort the rock dredge. Photo Credit: Marine National Facility

Not only did the students’ ability to relate data across disciplines show, but their science communication skills also got a chance at the spotlight. Elise even broke down the importance of interdisciplinary approaches by relating the benthic ecosystem to by far the most popular board game of the trip, Settlers of Catan (one night after dinner 20% of the people on board were all playing at the same time!) – assigning each resource (wheat, wood, brick, etc) to an important ecosystem component (phytoplankton, benthic organism, sediment composition, etc).

DSC_0165.jpgDolphins riding the bow wave

It is hard to believe we’re back on shore already- we’ll miss our ship family! Who knows, we may even see some of our students back as trainers in the years to come!

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The bow of the ship was busy most of the day, as calm seas and our proximity to Tasmania made for a beautiful sight and lots of marine visitors!

Stay tuned to the CAPSTAN website and this page as we start to look ahead to voyage 2019!

For more stories from this trip, check out my blog and the student’s group blog on the American Geophysical Union’s Field Blog.

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“Equipped with his five senses, man explores the universe around him and calls the adventure Science

E Hubble 1929

Real Work Experience as a Petroleum Geoscientist

Muhammad Rashid Saleem, University of Western Australia

I Muhammad Rashid Salem, from University of Western Australia, express my feelings during Collaborative Australian Postgraduate Sea Training Alliance Network (CAPSTAN) 2017 program and my significant learning and achievement in different aspect such as geophysics, sedimentary geology, paleontology, and oceanography that helped me to get better understanding of marine geoscience processes.

Screen Shot 2017-12-04 at 4.25.14 PM.pngI characterise sediments through the microscope in one of the labs on board

Working on offshore as a petroleum geoscientist was my dream and this dream comes true just because of this uniquely tailored scientific research program. Working as a petroleum geoscientist student from the University of Western Australia in CAPSTAN program gives me an opportunity to work hands on in professional environment and gain actual work experience in the field. This scientific research program gave me an opportunity to interact with researchers from different universities and CSIRO professional staff; and helped me to improve my communication skills in professional environment. Personally, this research has introduced me to a lot of useful resources in my field. I hope the skills, which I achieved during research will be a tool to improve my chances as a job applicant and assist me to become a better employee in my area of interest.

Screen Shot 2017-12-04 at 4.25.21 PMOur chief scientist takes a phone call in the operations room

What’s fun?

Visiting the sites! It is very interesting to get on the back deck with other teaching staff and ship members to collect the cores and rock dredge material that come out of the sea floor surface. The study of deep ocean sediments under the microscopes in wet laboratory helped me to recognize different facies and their fossils. Other interesting studies include geophysical data to map the sea floor surface and to know about sub bottom profile and hydrochemistry to know about temperature and salinity of ocean.

Screen Shot 2017-12-04 at 4.25.43 PM.pngCAPSTAN students and trainers recover a gravity core

Entirely, I learnt about geoscience in depth and realize how important the data is, which we collected during over fieldwork for petroleum prospective. My favorite times are when everyone including staff gets together during free time and discuss the things in friendly way. Last but not least, I want to say thanks to chefs and kitchen staff for their delicious dishes and their care about my food will always be remembered.

 

What’s challenging?

Life in the field is always hard especially when you are working offshore for the very first time, but I am very fortunate to have cooperative teaching staff and student from different universities worked as a team and make this scientific research very easy. Keeping up everyday routine to perform different task are challenging, but in a good way – it pushes me and make me stronger to learn and improve my skills.

Screen Shot 2017-12-04 at 4.25.57 PM.pngA sediment grab is brought on deck

My advice to upcoming CAPSTAN group is that working on this scientific program is very interesting and rewarding but make sure that be prepared to work hard in challenging environmental conditions. If you are adventurous, though this opportunity will be right up you alley!

The Day the Students Took Over

By Rebecca Riggs, University of Sydney

On Saturday morning, we were told that we, the students, would be planning the next day. By planning, that meant we decided where exactly we would be going and the activities that we would be doing. Basically, it meant we all got to be “chief scientists” for the day (want more on the student led day? click here!). That afternoon, four groups gave pitches on what we thought should be undertaken the next day, which was our last day on site.

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The rock dredge being brought back up onto the deck.  We were watching anxiously from the 02 deck above!

Having had the last five days on the ship, we have all been able to gain an understanding of what activities are capable in this environment and the time frames which are involved. Using this newly acquired knowledge we were able to make realistic scientific plans, considering all disciplines of people on board. That meant CTD operations, vertical plankton net deployment, Smith Mac sediment grabs, multi-corer, gravity coring and the most exciting piece of equipment for the geologists on board, myself included, the ROCK DREDGE.

After all the groups gave their pitches, one member from each of the groups came together to finalise a plan. Saturday afternoon was spent in the operations planning and prepping for the next day. We choose to undertake gravity cores, CTDs, vertical plankton hauls (see some of the species here), rock dredges, and the multi-corer (weather dependant). The sites for all these operations were chosen– shout out to Stuart in the operations room for his patience and guidance in helping us choose the dredge and coring sites!

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Gravity core deployment.  The robotic arm holding the gravity core in place is just being pulled away ready for the core to be dropped.

We went to bed, happy with our decisions, leaving two members of the group up on night shift, ready to question Dr Thomas Hubble when he came into the operations room for his shift. The next morning we had a meeting in the chief scientist’s cabin, to discuss the plans for the day. At this point I began to understand the amount of planning and re-planning that is involved in being a chief scientist on a voyage.

The rest of the day we got more of a taste what it would be like to really be in-charge on a voyage. People asking you to make decisions on the spot, looking for certain people and equipment, and things not going exactly to plan.  But it was a lot of fun, and I now understand why the chief scientist gets the best view on the ship.

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Core processing begins! The core has just been brought back up onto the deck and the students are marking the liner so it can be analysed later in the voyage.

The afternoon was exciting: we retrieved two gravity cores and the most exciting part of the day, the rock dredge. The rock dredge was dropped and then it was an anxious but exciting wait up on the 02 deck, with Bec, Lena, and Karl as we watched the trawl winch pull up the dredge on its long journey back from the deep. At this point, I want to thank all the crew and all the team up on the bridge. This is no easy operation and it was executed extremely well!  Following that, thanks to the crew who dealt very well with a group of excited students running around when the rock dredge came back on deck.

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A beautiful sunset at the end of the day.  The perfect end to the perfect day.

This was the most exciting day for me so far on the ship. I got to watch a gravity core be deployed not once, but twice. Then when the core came back on board we were able to go out on deck, to help process it. We had a successful rock dredge, I got a small window into what it is like as a chief scientist on board a vessel such as the RV Investigator and we managed to get ourselves arms deep in mud. We, the students, have learnt so much on this voyage, and were only half way through. We all like to think we did a pretty good job, though I was very happy to hand my chief scientist hat back to Dr Jochen Kämpf at the end of the day. I want to finish with a quote from Matt Kimber, our voyage manager, and that is:

“If you want to get something done, give the job to the students”.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Life in the middle of the Southern Ocean

By Ajinkya (AJ) Koleshwar, University of Western Australia

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The Collaborative Australian Postgraduate Sea Training Alliance Network (CAPSTAN), was a spectacular opportunity for myself to broaden my scientific horizons aboard the RV Investigator. Prior to boarding the ship, the day was filled with nervousness, with a hint of excitement in meeting colleagues with similar interests from across Australia. However, upon boarding the ship, my nervousness suddenly transformed itself into being awestruck with an immense excitement by the enormous multi-disciplinary capabilities from the biological to the geological spectrum of the RV Investigator. The voyage briefing provided me with a strong overall understanding of the basic training that was going to be provided during the entire voyage, with a preliminary plan for the main stations and the tests that were going to be performed. A trip down to the hydrochemistry lab introduced the CAPSTAN students to the CTD (conductivity, temperature and depth) instrument. This was completely new to myself. The instrument in reality works towards measuring the complex relationship between pressure and depth involved with water density and compressibility. Furthermore, in the operations room upon the deployment and retrieval of the CTD, a fluorescence indicator helps identify the locations within the water column wherein a higher proportion of chlorophyll activity was present. This helps to deploy plankton nets (see some of the catch here) at the specified depths. Furthermore, the following instruments were introduced, the gravity monitor, a sediment grabber, the gravity core, and the rock dredge (see the mud here).

The best view on the ship is on top of at the observation deck (monkey island-it is that little deck above the blue roof in the photo below) above the bridge. The spot is optimal for bird and mammal watching. As marine birds account for approximately 3% of the proportion of birds, watching the albatross’, the shearwaters, and the gannets adapt to their surrounding in the middle of the ocean is phenomenal to witness. Their unique flight patterns and behaviours helped me appreciate and enhance my knowledge in the area (read more about the birds here).

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We made it! Boarding the RV Investigator for our CAPSTAN voyage.

A snapshot of November 18th on the ship was spread out from being able to contribute to each of the instruments in their data retrieval to the data acquisition. The first stop was up to the observation deck, from 08:00 UTC to 09:45 UTC, where mammal activity was not present, however there was an upwards of 20 birds seen with two albatross species, two shearwater species and one gannet species. The previous day was mesmerizing with a sighting of over 100 pilot whales next to the ship. Having never seen whales before, witnessing the behaviour of a large pod was an event I will personally cherish.

The observation deck, was followed by a thorough tour of the engine rooms. To witness first-hand the machinery that operates the ship, was indeed fascinating. I was personally surprised at the intricacies involved in running the engineering aspects of a research vessel and the dynamic changes required to successfully retrieve samples.

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Sunset on the night of November 18, 2017

Finally, the students were tasked with the responsibility of being the Chief Scientists to develop a science plan for the following day (check out more stories on how it went here!). The opportunity to be part of the dynamic planning involved in proposing a multi-disciplinary scientific strategy was an enriching experience. Four student groups were responsible for presenting their project plans to the entire science party. To arrive at a mutually agreed upon plan based on the inputs from each group, a delegate was nominated to work with the team of scientists to implement the strategy to enhance the overall training outcomes. The experience was highly interactive and invaluable to being able to understand the thought process involved in the dynamic nature of marine planning. The amount of effort required in planning and pin-pointing locations of interest to retrieve samples in a marine environment was astounding to witness. The CAPSTAN experience has surpassed my expectations and there is still 8 days left on the ship. The training provided on the voyage is definitely the stepping stone for moving into a future as a successful marine scientist.

 

Interdisciplinary Collaborations

By Sam Wines, Deakin University

This program has been a great example of the effectiveness and necessity of integrating many different scientists from many disciplines to paint the best picture of a certain marine environment. This inaugural CAPSTAN program has brought together 9 experienced trainers and 20 aspiring postgraduate students from disciplines ranging between ecology, geology, microbiology, oceanography, geophysics and hydrochemistry. As an early career marine scientist this has been an invaluable experience to hear and learn from people with so much different knowledge and skills.

The underlying scientific objective of our voyage was to explore an area of reported high biomass around the shelf break at the bottom of Western Australia. The key interest around this area is high numbers and diversity of megafauna. Once on site, it became very evident that our large range of expertise complemented each other extremely well.

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And we’re off! All types of scientists on board!

Our first task was to improve the resolution and coverage of our knowledge of the shape of the seafloor in this area. Our main study area was made up of three large canyons systems, namely Bremer, Whale, and Hood. This is my area of interest! We used many types of sonar technology to explore the seafloor. First, we used multi-beam sonar to paint a picture of the seafloor. The essence of this technology is that it sprays around 400 pings of sound at a time from the bottom of the vessel and then times the return to a transceiver on the bottom of the vessel. By knowing the speed of sound in water we are able to know the exact depth, and by using many beams we can paint a detailed picture of the seafloor.

We also use sub-bottom profiling to understand the sediments and water column bioacoustics to understand the biomass in the water column. This creates the basis of our sampling design. From here we handball the data on to the others groups such as our geologists, biologists, climate scientists, and hydrochemists.

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Scientist’s version of a movie night. Introducing everyone to the wonderful world of drop cameras.

So onto our friends the geologists. As a biologist, these are a very interesting species of human to observe. I have never experienced people that get so excited over something as seemingly simple as a rock or some mud. I must be missing some of the details! These guys use our multibeam and sub bottom data to locate areas of interest where they sample the rocks and sediments. From this, they are able to infer what past situations were like and help paint another aspect of the picture.

From the geomorphology found in our multibeam data, as well as an understanding of oceanography, we are able to track areas of high productivity and nutrients. This is also compared with constant fluorometry readings indicating nutrient rich water. Here our hydrochemists will deploy the CTD (Conductivity (salinity), Temperature, Depth) as well as taking water samples from various depths. From these samples, they will measure  nutrients throughout the water column. This data is then coupled with vertical nets that collect plankton samples. In the grand scheme of things, it is thought that this might tell us where there will be food for the megafauna and thus hint to where the megafauna (including whales) are most likely to be.

All in all this collaborative approach has allowed us to understand a great deal about the structures of this area and the interaction between the bathymetry, chemistry, and biology. In turn, our expertise has allowed people from the other fields to further their efficiency and understanding of what is being sampled.